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嘉南大圳(かなんたいしゅう) – 日本統治時代ーメガプロジェクトの歴史

嘉南大圳(かなんたいしゅう)

 

嘉南大圳(かなんたいしゅう、拼音: Jianán Dàzùn )は、元の名を官佃溪埤圳といい、日本統治時代の最重要な水利工事の一つであり、台湾総督府の技師八田與一が設計し、工程には当時東南アジア最大だった烏山頭ダムも含んでいた。

1920年9月に土木工事を興し、当時の嘉義庁台南庁(現雲林嘉義台南等の県市)地区を灌漑区域とした。1930年4月、総工費5,414万円をかけて竣工し[1]嘉南平原の水田は30倍と大幅に増加した。

概要

1920年から1930年にかけて工事は広範囲にわたって行なわれることから、その工事には工事用軌道も敷設された。先ず烏山頭ダムが建設され、その後水路が開削されて曽文渓濁水渓二つの水系を接続している。烏山頭ダムで取水された後、北幹線と南幹線に分かれる。北幹線は烏山頭より北に向かい、急水渓八掌渓朴子渓を越えて、北港渓南岸に至る。南幹線は南に向かって官田溪、曽文溪を越えて台南市善化区に至る。また烏山頭ダム以外に濁水渓にも3箇所の取水口が設けられており、それぞれ林内第一取水口、林内第二取水口と中囲子第三取水口がある。林内第一取水口から取水したのが濁幹線で、旧虎尾渓の左岸に沿って南に向い北港渓に至り、北幹線と接続されている。

参考文献

  1. ^ 王萬邦『台灣的古圳道』 遠足文化、2003年、ISBN 9572856103

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